In order to determine if a company is fairly valued, we can look at a number of different ratios and metrics. First off we’ll take a look at the Price to Cash Flow ratio of Sandvik AB (OM:SAND). The firm currently has a P/CF ratio of 11.585378.

This is the current Price divided by Cash Flow Per Share for the trailing twelve months. Cash Flow is defined as Income After Taxes minus Preferred Dividends and General Partner Distributions plus Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization.

When dealing with the stock market, investors may seek to make trades that will limit regret and create a sense of pride. Often times, investors may be challenged with trying to figure out the proper time to sell winners or let go of losers. Of course, nobody wants to sell a winner if it looks like there may be more profits to be had. On the other hand, nobody wants to hold on to a loser for so long that severe losses pile up. Investors often need to assess their own appetite for risk. Some may be able to stomach large swings on a daily basis. Others may not be able to take the volatility when dealing with riskier investments. Risk decisions may be made on past outcomes, and investors who have experienced previous profits and gains may be more likely to take a bigger risk in the future. Those who have only seen substantial losses may be more risk adverse in the future.

Profitability

The Return on Invested Capital (aka ROIC) for Sandvik AB (OM:SAND) is 0.286424. The Return on Invested Capital is a ratio that determines whether a company is profitable or not. It tells investors how well a company is turning their capital into profits. The ROIC is calculated by dividing the net operating profit (or EBIT) by the employed capital. The employed capital is calculated by subrating current liabilities from total assets. Similarly, the Return on Invested Capital Quality ratio is a tool in evaluating the quality of a company’s ROIC over the course of five years. The ROIC Quality of Sandvik AB (OM:SAND) is 13.045244. This is calculated by dividing the five year average ROIC by the Standard Deviation of the 5 year ROIC. The ROIC 5 year average is calculated using the five year average EBIT, five year average (net working capital and net fixed assets). The ROIC 5 year average of Sandvik AB (OM:SAND) is 0.177353.

Sandvik AB (OM:SAND) has a Price to Book ratio of 3.190702. This ratio is calculated by dividing the current share price by the book value per share. Investors may use Price to Book to display how the market portrays the value of a stock. Checking in on some other ratios, the company has a Price to Cash Flow ratio of 11.585378, and a current Price to Earnings ratio of 14.968529. The P/E ratio is one of the most common ratios used for figuring out whether a company is overvalued or undervalued.

After a recent scan, we can see that Sandvik AB (OM:SAND) has a Shareholder Yield of 0.027366 and a Shareholder Yield (Mebane Faber) of 0.00703. The first value is calculated by adding the dividend yield to the percentage of repurchased shares. The second value adds in the net debt repaid yield to the calculation. Shareholder yield has the ability to show how much money the firm is giving back to shareholders via a few different avenues. Companies may issue new shares and buy back their own shares. This may occur at the same time. Investors may also use shareholder yield to gauge a baseline rate of return.

The EBITDA Yield is a great way to determine a company’s profitability. This number is calculated by dividing a company’s earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization by the company’s enterprise value. Enterprise Value is calculated by taking the market capitalization plus debt, minority interest and preferred shares, minus total cash and cash equivalents. The EBITDA Yield for Sandvik AB (OM:SAND) is 0.103285.

There are many different tools to determine whether a company is profitable or not. One of the most popular ratios is the “Return on Assets” (aka ROA). This score indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. The Return on Assets for Sandvik AB (OM:SAND) is 0.114101. This number is calculated by dividing net income after tax by the company’s total assets. A company that manages their assets well will have a higher return, while a company that manages their assets poorly will have a lower return.

**Quant Scores**

The Gross Margin Score is calculated by looking at the Gross Margin and the overall stability of the company over the course of 8 years. The score is a number between one and one hundred (1 being best and 100 being the worst). The Gross Margin Score of Sandvik AB (OM:SAND) is 7.00000. The more stable the company, the lower the score. If a company is less stable over the course of time, they will have a higher score.

The C-Score is a system developed by James Montier that helps determine whether a company is involved in falsifying their financial statements. The C-Score is calculated by a variety of items, including a growing difference in net income verse cash flow, increasing days outstanding, growing days sales of inventory, increasing assets to sales, declines in depreciation, and high total asset growth. The C-Score of Sandvik AB (OM:SAND) is 1.00000. The score ranges on a scale of -1 to 6. If the score is -1, then there is not enough information to determine the C-Score. If the number is at zero (0) then there is no evidence of fraudulent book cooking, whereas a number of 6 indicates a high likelihood of fraudulent activity. The C-Score assists investors in assessing the likelihood of a company cheating in the books.

The ERP5 Rank is an investment tool that analysts use to discover undervalued companies. The ERP5 looks at the Price to Book ratio, Earnings Yield, ROIC and 5 year average ROIC. The ERP5 of Sandvik AB (OM:SAND) is 4249. The lower the ERP5 rank, the more undervalued a company is thought to be.

At the time of writing, Sandvik AB (OM:SAND) has a Piotroski F-Score of 5. The F-Score may help discover companies with strengthening balance sheets. The score may also be used to spot the weak performers. Joseph Piotroski developed the F-Score which employs nine different variables based on the company financial statement. A single point is assigned to each test that a stock passes. Typically, a stock scoring an 8 or 9 would be seen as strong. On the other end, a stock with a score from 0-2 would be viewed as weak.

Checking in on some valuation rankings, Sandvik AB (OM:SAND) has a Value Composite score of 37. Developed by James O’Shaughnessy, the VC score uses five valuation ratios. These ratios are price to earnings, price to cash flow, EBITDA to EV, price to book value, and price to sales. The VC is displayed as a number between 1 and 100. In general, a company with a score closer to 0 would be seen as undervalued, and a score closer to 100 would indicate an overvalued company. Adding a sixth ratio, shareholder yield, we can view the Value Composite 2 score which is currently sitting at 32.

As we move into the second half of the year, investors may be focused on portfolio performance over the first part of the year. They may be trying to put all the pieces together in order to create a solid plan that will provide sustained profits, even if market conditions deteriorate. This may involve introducing more diversity into the portfolio. One investor may evaluate a stock completely different than another. It may be important to do the necessary research on the overall industry when searching for the next big winner. As the next round of earnings reporting gets underway, investors will be watching to see which companies are positioned for growth over the foreseeable future. Investors will optimally have all their requisite boxes checked when scouting out the next portfolio moves.

The Price to Cash Flow for Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) is 17.458026. The price to cash flow formula is a useful tool investors can use in order to determine the value of a company. Generally, a higher P/CF ratio indicates that the company is less capital demanding and the lesser price to cash flow indicates that the company is more capital demanding.

Formula: Price to Cash Flow = Current Stock Price/ Cash Flow per Share

This ratio is calculated by dividing the market value of a company by cash from operating activities. Additionally, the price to earnings ratio is another popular way for analysts and investors to determine a company’s profitability. The price to earnings ratio for Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) is 25.887620. This ratio is found by taking the current share price and dividing by earnings per share.

Further, Price to Book ratio for Amcor plc ASX:AMC is 31.513164. A lower price to book ratio indicates that the stock might be undervalued.

Traders may be looking to capitalize on market trends as we move into the second part of the calendar year. Closely following the technicals might help make sense of current market conditions. Investors may choose to follow many different technical signals, or they may have picked a few popular ones to dedicate themselves to. Whatever the strategy, staying in tune with fundamentals and meaningful economic data may also prove to be highly beneficial. Coming at the equity market from multiple angles may help supply the investor with alternate perspectives that could play a vital role in the next couple of quarters.

In taking a look at some additional key numbers, Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) has a current ERP5 Rank of 7216. The ERP5 Rank may assist investors with spotting companies that are undervalued. This ranking uses four ratios. These ratios are Earnings Yield, ROIC, Price to Book, and 5 year average ROIC. When looking at the ERP5 ranking, it is generally considered the lower the value, the better.

The Gross Margin Score is calculated by looking at the Gross Margin and the overall stability of the company over the course of 8 years. The score is a number between one and one hundred (1 being best and 100 being the worst). The Gross Margin Score of Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) is 14.00000. The more stable the company, the lower the score. If a company is less stable over the course of time, they will have a higher score.

Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) currently has a Montier C-score of 0.00000. This indicator was developed by James Montier in an attempt to identify firms that were fixing the books in order to appear better on paper. The score ranges from zero to six where a 0 would indicate no evidence of book cooking, and a 6 would indicate a high likelihood. A C-score of -1 would indicate that there is not enough information available to calculate the score. Montier used six inputs in the calculation. These inputs included a growing difference between net income and cash flow from operations, increasing receivable days, growing day’s sales of inventory, increasing other current assets, decrease in depreciation relative to gross property plant and equipment, and high total asset growth.

Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) has an M-score Beneish of -2.702214. This M-score model was developed by Messod Beneish in order to detect manipulation of financial statements. The score uses a combination of eight different variables. The specifics of the variables and formula can be found in the Beneish paper “The Detection of Earnings Manipulation”.

The Value Composite One (VC1) is a method that investors use to determine a company’s value. The VC1 of Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) is 57. A company with a value of 0 is thought to be an undervalued company, while a company with a value of 100 is considered an overvalued company. The VC1 is calculated using the price to book value, price to sales, EBITDA to EV, price to cash flow, and price to earnings. Similarly, the Value Composite Two (VC2) is calculated with the same ratios, but adds the Shareholder Yield. The Value Composite Two of Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) is 46.

At the time of writing, Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) has a Piotroski F-Score of 6. The F-Score may help discover companies with strengthening balance sheets. The score may also be used to spot the weak performers. Joseph Piotroski developed the F-Score which employs nine different variables based on the company financial statement. A single point is assigned to each test that a stock passes. Typically, a stock scoring an 8 or 9 would be seen as strong. On the other end, a stock with a score from 0-2 would be viewed as weak.

**Valuation**

Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) presently has a current ratio of 0.78. The current ratio, also known as the working capital ratio, is a liquidity ratio that displays the proportion of current assets of a business relative to the current liabilities. The ratio is simply calculated by dividing current liabilities by current assets. The ratio may be used to provide an idea of the ability of a certain company to pay back its liabilities with assets. Typically, the higher the current ratio the better, as the company may be more capable of paying back its obligations.

The Earnings to Price yield of Amcor plc ASX:AMC is 0.038629. This is calculated by taking the earnings per share and dividing it by the last closing share price. This is one of the most popular methods investors use to evaluate a company’s financial performance. Earnings Yield is calculated by taking the operating income or earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) and dividing it by the Enterprise Value of the company. The Earnings Yield for Amcor plc ASX:AMC is 0.042967. Earnings Yield helps investors measure the return on investment for a given company. Similarly, the Earnings Yield Five Year Average is the five year average operating income or EBIT divided by the current enterprise value. The Earnings Yield Five Year average for Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) is 0.045081.

Free Cash Flow Growth (FCF Growth) is the free cash flow of the current year minus the free cash flow from the previous year, divided by last year’s free cash flow. The FCF Growth of Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) is -0.003849. Free cash flow (FCF) is the cash produced by the company minus capital expenditure. This cash is what a company uses to meet its financial obligations, such as making payments on debt or to pay out dividends. The Free Cash Flow Score (FCF Score) is a helpful tool in calculating the free cash flow growth with free cash flow stability – this gives investors the overall quality of the free cash flow. The FCF Score of Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) is 0.679803. Experts say the higher the value, the better, as it means that the free cash flow is high, or the variability of free cash flow is low or both.

**Volatility**

Stock volatility is a percentage that indicates whether a stock is a desirable purchase. Investors look at the Volatility 12m to determine if a company has a low volatility percentage or not over the course of a year. The Volatility 12m of Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) is 16.279100. This is calculated by taking weekly log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over one year annualized. The lower the number, a company is thought to have low volatility. The Volatility 3m is a similar percentage determined by the daily log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over 3 months. The Volatility 3m of Amcor plc (ASX:AMC) is 18.034500. The Volatility 6m is the same, except measured over the course of six months. The Volatility 6m is 15.808200.

Investors often have a large selection of stocks to research when looking to add to the portfolio. Investors have the ability to employ many different strategies to help beat the stock market. In the end, the main goal is typically to maximize profits while minimizing risk. Investors commonly strive to diversify the portfolio in order to minimize risk. Most serious investors are well aware of the risks when entering the equity market. Investors may choose to own stocks across multiple industries to keep from having all the eggs in one basket. Others may choose companies of different size, and even delve into foreign markets. Finding those hidden gems in the stock market may not be the easiest of chores. Investors may have to spend many hours doing the research and crunching the numbers.

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